Positive Behaviour Support for Children/Youth with Special Needs

Overview

Does your child/ward have special needs and is exhibiting challenging behaviour at home and in school? Are you facing difficulty in managing it and communicating with the child effectively?

Fret not. We believe that we can help you and the child with Positive Behaviour Support.

What is Positive Behaviour Support (PBS)?

Positive Behaviour Support (PBS) is grounded on the theory of learning, with a growing evidence base as an effective method in dealing with challenging behaviours. PBS also has a strong values base and is a person-centred approach, where its focus is on the individual and his or her unique needs.

It is positive as it enhances and strengthens the helpful and suitable behaviours—this gives more focus on the positive behaviours in dealing with challenging behaviours. PBS is likewise preventive as it proactively anticipates when things may go wrong and avoid it from happening.

Ten Components of PBS

These components are divided into values, theory, and process.

Values

  1. PBS is about improving the quality of life of the young individual and of those around him or her. It takes place within the context of inclusion and participation in roles valued by the community and society as a whole.
  2. PBS works through constructive practices which develop and build skills and not through aversive and restrictive practices.
  3. Practitioners work in partnership with the child or adolescent and those people who are important to him or her, such as family.

Theory

  1. There is an understanding that all behaviour is for a reason, thus challenging behaviour serves a function for the child or adolescent with special needs.
  2. PBS utilises the techniques of applied behaviour analysis, where observable behaviour is objectively analysed to make changes to the challenging behaviours.
  3. Complementary evidence-based approaches may be included in PBS plans to support behaviour change.

Process

  1. PBS is a data-driven approach, where decisions at every stage are based on facts and research.
  2. A formal assessment is made to create a clear plan of action.
  3. A PBS plan informs concerned parties what to do to proactively prevent the challenging behaviour from taking place and manage it well reactively if it does.
  4. PBS should ensure the child or adolescent is actively supported in the long term to maintain their quality of life.

Our Services

  • Conducting a Functional Behaviour Assessment (FBA) during the initial session, and delivery of an FBA report
  • Providing a Behaviour Support Plan (BSP) based on the initial assessment
  • Employing behavioural strategies during sessions with both the child and the parent
  • Monitoring and evaluating the child’s progress based on the BSP by the PBS practitioner

Process of Positive Behaviour Support

The PBS practitioner will conduct an initial assessment of the child’s behaviour profile. An investigation of the child’s challenging behaviours through data collection will be done and the information will be reviewed to know the function of the behaviours. The strengths and abilities, quality of life, and needs for support will also be assessed to help identify which services may be helpful in the child’s situation.

The process of the Functional Behaviour Assessment includes:

  1. Interview with the Parents or Caregiver
  2. Observation of the Child
  3. Completion of assessment tools such as the Challenging Behaviour Attributions Scale (CHABA), Disability Distress Assessment Tool, and other instruments
  4. Review of reports provided by other professionals such as doctor, psychologist, school teacher, child care teacher, or other therapists.

The PBS practitioner will then create a Behaviour Support Plan (BPS) based on the initial assessment. The BPS will include:

  • Setting event strategies and antecedent strategies
  • Behaviour teaching strategies, i.e. replacement skills
  • Consequence strategies, e.g. reinforcement
  • Safety plan in case of emergency behaviour management

The behaviour strategies included in the plan will be employed during sessions with both the parent and the child. Should the child negatively respond with the presence of the parent, the practitioner will work with the child first, then eventually includes the parent in the sessions.

Timing of sessions whether bi-weekly or weekly will be dependent on different factors such as the severity and nature of the challenging behaviours, and the young person’s age.

The duration of each session is 1.5 hours.

Monitoring of the child’s progress will be done regularly through review of behavioural charts.

Requirements for Parents

Parents are required to provide reports from other professionals, such as observation report from the school, report from other therapists, or diagnostic report of the child’s condition.

The diagnostic report, however, is not a requirement.

Parents or caregivers are also required to be part of the sessions to be able to practise the behaviour strategies as guided by the PBS practitioner.

Fees

DescriptionFees
Initial Assessment, including FBA Report and BSP$300.00
PBS Sessions$150.00
References

Ministry of Education Singapore. (01 Nov 2018). Overview of Support for Children with Special Education Needs. Retrieved from https://www.moe.gov.sg/education/special-education/

The Statistics Portal. (Nov 2016). Number of Children with Disabilities Attending Mainstream
Secondary Schools in Singapore as of November 2016, by Gender. Retrieved from
https://www.statista.com/statistics/939613/singapore-children-with-disabilities-in-mainstream-secondary-schools-by-gender/

Teng, Amelia. (05 Nov 2016). Schools a must for special needs children. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/education/children-with-moderate-to-severe-special-needs-to-be-part-of-compulsory

Autism Spectrum Australia. (Dec 2015). What is Positive Behaviour Support? Retrieved from https://www.autismspectrum.org.au/sites/default/files/Aspect%20Practice%20What%20is%20Positive%20Behaviour%20Support.pdf

Autism Spectrum Australia. (Dec 2015). What is Challenging Behaviour? Retrieved from https://www.autismspectrum.org.au/sites/default/files/Aspect%20Practice%20What%20is%20Challenging%20Behaviour.pdf